Byinshi wamenya ku mibereho ya Elon Musk wabaye umukire wa mbere ku isi

Byinshi wamenya ku mibereho ya Elon Musk wabaye umukire wa mbere ku isi

Elon Musk, yavutse ku ya 28 Kamena 1971, avukira muri Pretoria mu gihugu cya Afurika y’Epfo,ni rwiyemezamirimo w’Umunyamerika wavukiye muri Afurika y’Epfo yashinze ikigo cyo kwishyura hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga PayPal maze ashinga SpaceX, ni ikigo gikora ibinyabiziga byoherezwa mu kirere hamwe n’icyogajuru. Yabaye kandi umwe mu bashoramari ba mbere bakomeye ndetse n’umuyobozi mu kuru w’uruganda rukora imodoka z’amashanyarazi Tesla.

Ubuzima bwe akiri muto

Musk yavutse kuri Se wo muri Afrika yepfo na nyina w’umunyakanada. Yerekanye impano kuri mudasobwa no kwihangira imirimo akiri muto. Afite imyaka 12 yakoze umukino wa videwo awugurisha ku kinyamakuru cya mudasobwa. Mu 1988, nyuma yo kubona pasiporo yo muri Kanada, Musk yavuye muri Afurika y’Epfo kubera ko atashakaga gushyigikira ivangura binyuze mu gisirikare ku gahato kandi kubera ko yashakaga amahirwe menshi y’ubukungu aboneka muri Amerika.

PayPal na SpaceX

Musk yize muri kaminuza ya Queen’s University, muri Ontario, maze mu 1992 yimukira muri kaminuza ya Pennsylvania, muri Philadelphia, ari naho yakuye impamyabumenyi ihanitse mu bijyanye n’ubugenge n’ubukungu mu 1997. Yiyandikishije mu mashuri yisumbuye mu isomo ry’ubugenge(physics) muri kaminuza ya Stanford muri Californiya, ariko aragenda. Nyuma y’iminsi ibiri gusa kuko yumvaga ko interineti ifite amahirwe menshi yo guhindura sosiyete kuruta gukora muri physics.
Mu 1995 yashinze Zip2, isosiyete itanga amakarita n’ubuyobozi bw’ubucuruzi ku binyamakuru byo ku murongo wa enterineti.

Mu 1999 Zip2 yaguzwe n’uruganda rukora mudasobwa Compaq kuri miliyoni 307 z’amadolari, hanyuma Musk ahita ashinga isosiyete ikora ibijyanye n’imari kuri interineti, X.com, nyuma yaje kuba PayPal, izobereye mu kohereza amafaranga kuri interineti. Mu cyamunara ku murongo eBay yaguze PayPal mu mwaka wa 2002 kuri miliyari 1.5.

Musk yari amaze igihe kinini yemeza ko kugirango ubuzima bubeho, ikiremwamuntu kigomba guhinduka ubwoko bwinshi. Icyakora, ntiyanyuzwe n’amafaranga menshi yo kohereza roketi. Mu 2002 yashinze Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) kugirango ikore roketi zihendutse. Roketi zayo ebyiri za mbere ni Falcon 1 (yatangijwe bwa mbere mu 2006) na Falcon 9 nini (yatangijwe bwa mbere mu 2010), zagenewe kugura amafaranga make ugereranije na roketi zirushanwa.

Roketi ya gatatu, Falcon Heavy (yatangijwe bwa mbere muri 2018), yagenewe gutwara ibiro 117.000 (kg 53.000) mu kuzenguruka, bikubye hafi inshuro ebyiri umunywanyi wayo ukomeye, Delta IV Heavy ya sosiyete ya Boeing, kuri kimwe cya gatatu cy’ibiciro. SpaceX yatangaje uzasimbura Falcon 9 na Falcon Heavy : system ya super Heavy - Starship. Icyiciro cya mbere cya super Heavy cyaba gishobora guterura 100.000 kg (220.000 pound) mu kuzenguruka isi.

Ubwikorezi bw’aba Starship, icyogajuru cyagenewe gutanga ubwikorezi bwihuse hagati y’imijyi y’isi no kubaka ibirindiro ku Kwezi na Mars. SpaceX yateje imbere icyogajuru gitwara ibikoresho kuri sitasiyo mpuzamahanga (ISS). Icyo cyogajuru gishobora gutwara abantu bagera kuri barindwi mu kirere, kandi cyari gifite indege y’abakozi yari itwaye icyogajuru Doug Hurley na Robert Behnken berekeza muri ISS mu 2020. Musk yashatse kugabanya amafaranga akoreshwa mu kirere akora roketi ishobora kongera gukoreshwa ishobora guhaguruka ikagaruka kuri pad.

Guhera mu 2012, roketi ya Grasshopper ya SpaceX yakoze ingendo ngufi nyinshi kugirango igerageze ikoranabuhanga nk’iryo. Usibye kuba umuyobozi mukuru wa SpaceX, Musk yanabaye umuyobozi mukuru mu kubaka roketi Falcon, Dragon, na Grasshopper.

Tesla

Musk yari amaze igihe kinini ashishikajwe n’imodoka z’amashanyarazi, maze mu 2004 aba umwe mu baterankunga bakomeye ba Tesla Motors (nyuma yiswe Tesla), isosiyete y’imodoka y’amashanyarazi yashinzwe na ba rwiyemezamirimo Martin Eberhard na Marc Tarpenning. Mu 2006, Tesla yazanye imodoka ya mbere, Roadster, yashoboraga kugenda ibirometero 245 (394 km) ku giciro kimwe.

Bitandukanye n’imodoka nyinshi zabanjije zikoresha amashanyarazi, Musk yatekerezaga ko zidakomeye kandi zidashimishije, ni imodoka ya siporo yashoboraga kuva kuri kilometero 0 kugera kuri 60 (97 km) ku masaha mu gihe kitarenze amasegonda ane. Mu mwaka wa 2010 isosiyete yatangiye ku mugaragaro yakusanyije miliyoni 226 z’amadolari. Nyuma y’imyaka ibiri, Tesla yerekanye Model S sedan, yashimiwe n’abanenga amamodoka kubikorwa byayo . Iyi sosiyete yatsindiye ishimwe ryinshi rya SUV Model X nziza cyane, ya giye ku isoko mu 2015. Model 3, imodoka ihendutse, yatangiye gukora mu 2017.

Musk yagaragaje ko yanze ko Tesla igurishwa ku mugaragaro, maze muri Kanama 2018 akora tweet nyinshi ku bijyanye no gufata iyi sosiyete ku giti cye, avuga ko “yabonye inkunga.” Mu kwezi gukurikira, komisiyo ishinzwe kugurizanya muri Amerika (SEC) yareze Musk kubera uburiganya bw’impapuro, avuga ko tweet ari “ibinyoma kandi biyobya.” Nyuma yaho gato, inama y’ubutegetsi ya Tesla yanze ko SEC isabwa kubikemura, bivugwa ko kubera ko Musk yari yavuze ko azegura.

Ntabwo yishimiye ikiguzi cyari giteganijwe (miliyari 68 z’amadolari) ya sisitem ya gari ya moshi yihuta muri Californiya, Musk mu 2013 yatanze icyifuzo cy’ubundi buryo bwihuse, Hyperloop, umuyoboro wa pneumatike aho podo yari itwaye abagenzi 28 yari kugenda ibirometero 350 (560 km) hagati ya Los Angeles na San Francisco mu minota 35 ku muvuduko wo hejuru wa kilometero 760 ku isaha, hafi y ’umuvuduko w’ijwi.

Musk yavuze ko Hyperloop izatwara miliyari 6 z’amadolari gusa kandi ko, hamwe na podo zigenda buri minota ibiri ugereranyije, sisiteme ishobora kwakira abantu miliyoni esheshatu bagenda muri iyo nzira buri mwaka. Icyakora, yavuze ko, hagati yo gukoresha SpaceX na Tesla, adashobora gukoresha igihe mu iterambere rya Hyperloop.